Turkish Invasion in India - After the Arab invasion in the eight century, India remained secured from Mughal invasion for a long time for around two centuries.
But in the end of the tenth century, the Mughal invasion again started in India, but this time the invasion was not made by the Arabs, this time the invaders were the Turks.
The first invaders from Turk was Ghazni ruler Sabuktagin. He became the ruler in 977 CE, and just after becoming the ruler, he started to expand the boundaries of his empire.
At that time the north western part of India was ruled by Jayapala, who was a capable ruler of Shahi dynasty.
After a long struggle, owning to betrayal and conspiracies, Sabuktagin stood victorious. Then he captured Indian regions from Lamghan up to Peshawar.
After the death of Sabuktagin in 997 CE, his son Ismael and Mahmud (Ghaznavi) became the ruler respectively.
Mahmud was a capable ruler to the throne. He was ambitious and invaded India up to seventeen time, among these sixteen were made in the Somnath temple (Gujarat). Among these seventeen invasions, the invasion made in 1025 CE was the most famous one.
As soon as Raja Bhimdev got the information of the arrival of Mahmud, he (Bhimdev) fled away from his capital along with his followers, but the common peoples and the priests of the Somnath Temple remained indomitable in their place.
Because according to them in the presence of Somnath no one can do anything to them or harm them, they were absolutely safe there.
According to historians, the people of Somnath oppose the Turkish army on the first day in such an aggressive and violent manner so that the invaders were forced to fall back.
On the second day, the Turkish army became successful in crossing the walls of the city, but the soldiers who were present there to protect the city and the people made them to go out from the city.
And on the third day, a direct fierce battle took place between the soldiers of the city and the invaders.
According to Ibn Al Aseer, after witnessing that the Hindu army was getting defeated, a group of volunteers continued to enter the temple, one after the other and swore to fight till death, but only a few of them remained alive.
Then finally Mahmud occupies the city without any opposition and any type of protest and he commanded his army for mass killing.
More than 50,000 men and women were put to death in that mass killing. Mahmud himself broke the statue of Somnath after gaining victory and sent its pieces to Ghazni, Mecca and Medina and settle them under the staircases of the main mosque.
And the last and final invasion of Mahmud was against Jats of Sindh in 1027 CE, because these Jats caused him a severe loss while returning from Somnath to Ghazni during his previous invasion in India.
In 1173 CE, the ruler of Gaur, Ghiyasuddin occupied Ghazni and he appointed his younger brother Shihabuddin as the ruler of Ghazni.
Afterwards the same Shihabuddin became famous by the name Muinuddin Muhammad Ghori in history. He was also an ambitious ruler. After becoming the ruler of Ghazni, he decided to invade India.
His main objectives behind invading India are:
1. Obtain money and wealth from India.
2. Aspiration of empire expansion.
3. Circulation of Islamic religion in India.
4. Eliminating the ruler of Ghazni in Punjab and of Ismailiya dynasty in Multan.
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